Liane Russell, Who Studied Radiation’s Effects on Embryos, Dies at 95

There she helped identify the harmful effects of radiation and chemicals on mice embryos and the genetic implications of such damage.In 2001, Oak Ridge dedicated a new lab to mouse research, naming it the William L. Read more »

Donald Klein, Who Expanded the Psychiatric Toolbox, Dies at 90

His wife, Rachel Klein, said the cause was cardiopulmonary arrest.”Since psychiatric problems aren’t easily measured the way, for instance, a heart rate is, methods to gauge a medicine’s effects were needed. Read more »

Kary B. Mullis, 74, Dies; Found a Way to Analyze DNA and Won Nobel

Polymerase, an enzyme that synthesizes polymers and nucleic acids, is essential in creating DNA and RNA, the molecules that are responsible for coding DNA.Before PCR, amplifying DNA took weeks, because it had to be generated in bacteria. Read more »

Dr. John Hansen, Who Made Marrow Transplants Safer, Dies at 76

CreditCreditThe Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterDr.As a clinical researcher at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle from 1977 until he retired last year, Dr. Read more »

J. Robert Schrieffer, 88, Dies; Insight on Superconductivity Led to Nobel

Robert Schrieffer at the University of Pennsylvania in 1972 shortly after learning that he’d won the Nobel Prize in Physics.Indeed, an electrical current running around a ring of mercury at 7 degrees above absolute zero would, in principle, run forever. Read more »

Border Collie Trained to Recognize 1,022 Nouns Dies

ImageChaser, a Border collie who gained fame for being trained to recognize more than 1,000 nouns, died at the age of 15.CreditCreditvia Pilley BianchiMany owners struggle to teach their dogs to sit, fetch or even bark on command, but John W. Read more »

Man Dies of ‘Brain-Eating’ Amoeba After Swimming in Lake

|Man Dies of ‘Brain-Eating’ Amoeba After Swimming in LakeNaegleria fowleri, a single-celled organism found in warm freshwater, can be fatal if it enters the body through the nose.CreditCreditCenters for Disease Control and PreventionA man in North Carolina died on Monday after he went swimming in a lake and was infected by Naegleria fowleri, a single-celled organism known as the “brain-eating amoeba. Read more »

Daniel Callahan, 88, Dies; Bioethics Pioneer Weighed ‘Human Finitude’

Together the two founded the Hastings Center in Hastings-on-Hudson, north of New York City, which calls itself the first research institute in the world devoted to bioethics, for the study of bioethical issues.A leading liberal Roman Catholic thinker who eventually left the church, Mr. Read more »

Edith Irby Jones, Barrier-Breaking Doctor in the South, Dies at 91

Thomas Bruce, the dean of the College of Medicine at the University of Arkansas Medical School.At that young age, Edith resolved to become a doctor who would find her reward in service, not wealth. Read more »

Christopher Kraft, NASA’s Face and Voice of Mission Control, Dies at 95

ImageChristopher Kraft at his director console in mission control during a flight simulation in 1965.But in the windowless mission control room, he became a blunt taskmaster, demanding obedience and precision from subordinates and astronauts. Read more »

Mitchell Feigenbaum, Physicist, Dies at 74; He Made Sense of Chaos

ImageMitchell Feigenbaum, far right, an innovative thinker in the field of mathematical physics known as chaos, experienced a more mundane moment of disarray in 1984 as he accompanied undergraduate students on the Cornell University campus.But by following his own path, he uncovered a pattern of chaos that is universal in math and in nature. Read more »

Fernando Corbató, a Father of Your Computer (and Your Password), Dies at 93

His computer time-sharing system developed there paved the way for the personal computer.CreditCreditMIT CSAILFernando Corbató, whose work on computer time-sharing in the 1960s helped pave the way for the personal computer, as well as the computer password, died on Friday at a nursing home in Newburyport, Mass. Read more »

Mickey Kapp, Who Made Mixtapes for Astronauts, Dies at 88

He used his music industry connections to make customized mixtapes for astronauts.His wife, Joyce Garvin Kapp, said the cause was congestive heart failure. Read more »

Robert Levine, Who Studied Kindness, Identity and Time, Dies at 73

But Professor Levine did not draw simplistic conclusions.”Such studies, intriguing and accessible, were Professor Levine’s specialty. Read more »

Dr. Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Scrutinizer of Aging, Dies at 84

The cause was cerebral small vessel disease, her daughter, Caroline Connor, said.“It took someone to decide to do it,” said Gail Laughlin, an associate professor of epidemiology at San Diego. Read more »

LaSalle Leffall Jr., 89, Dies; Cancer Society’s First Black Leader

, left, at Howard University, where he began teaching in 1962.He was chairman of the medical college’s department of surgery for 25 years. Read more »

Murray Gell-Mann, Who Peered at Particles and Saw the Universe, Dies at 89

Before long there were up quarks and down quarks, strange quarks and charm quarks, top quarks and bottom quarks, all stuck together with particles called gluons.Gross, another Nobel laureate in physics, said in an interview for this obituary in 2010. Read more »

Dr. Arthur Zitrin, Bioethicist and Death Penalty Foe, Dies at 101

Arthur Zitrin in 1968 with the remnants of four Corinthian columns from the Cornell University Medical College.The New York University Center for Bioethics was established in 2007 with a professorship endowed by Dr. Read more »

Nils Nilsson, 86, Dies; Scientist Helped Robots Find Their Way

” The approach broke with the dominant direction of artificial intelligence at the time.“He didn’t have any interest in commerce or, as he would call it, ‘industry. Read more »

Dr. David Hamburg, Leader in Conflict Resolution, Dies at 93

CreditCreditNeal Boenzi/The New York TimesDr.Beatrix Hamburg, a noted researcher in child development and psychology, were DeWitt Wallace distinguished scholars at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York. Read more »